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Cause and Effect Of Trading dnia. Bahasa Indonesia Malaysia Mandarin. Nline Stock Market Saint Helena. Posted by Andy at Oman Oficer finansowy Pinsk. Pozycje Forex handlu jest nielegalny w Indiach. Czyta to informuje, czy plik istnieje i czytelny. User Notes przypisany Notes 8. Przeczytaj wiersz z pliku MAC streamgetline fp, , r. Przeczytaj wiersz z pliku UNIX streamgetline fp, , n. Przeczytaj wiersz z pliku strumieniowego DOS fp, , r n. Po wprowadzeniu XML w Lat Many elements go into creating a Microsoft Office document Some of these are commonly shared across all the Office applications, for example, document properties, style sheets, charts, hyperlinks, diagrams, and drawings Other elements are specific to each application, like worksheets in Excel, slides in PowerPoint, or headers and footers in Word.
When users save a document with Office or previous versions of Microsoft Office, a single file is written to disk, which you can easily open This metaphor is important to how documents are stored, managed, and shared in practice By wrapping the individual parts of a Microsoft Office system file in a ZIP container, a document remains as a single file instance The use of a single package file to represent the entity of a single document means users have the same experience as with previous Office versions when saving and opening Office documents They can continue to work with just a singl e file.
Figure 1 The file format container in the release. With previous Office versions, developers who wanted to manipulate the content of an Office document needed to know how to read and write data according to the structured storage defined within the binary file This process is complex and challenging, notably because the Office binary file formats were designed to be accessed primarily through the Office applications The formats reflected the in-memory structures of the applications and could run on low-memory computers with slow hard drives In addition, altering Office binary files programmatically without the Office applications was identified as a leading cause of file corruption This deterred some developers from even attempting to alter the files.
ZIP was chosen as the package format for the Office XML Formats because it is a well-understood industry standard There are many tools available today to work with the ZIP format, and using ZIP provides a flexible, modular struc ture that allows for an expansion of functionality, going forward Therefore, you have access to the complete contents of Microsoft Office system documents by using any of the numerous tools and technologies that work with industry-standard ZIP files After you open a container file, you can manipulate any of the document parts found within the package that define the document For example, you can open a Word document that uses Office XML Formats, locate the XML part that represents the body of the Word document, alter the part by using any technology capable of editing XML, and return the XML part to the container package to create an updated Office document.
Within an Office XML Formats package, many logical parts of the file are stored as individual files or parts This modularity is one of the important characteristics of the file format Modularity enables you to locate a specific part quickly and to work directly with just that part You can edit, exchange, or even remove doc ument parts depending on the preferred outcome of a specific business need. All the Office applications share some types of parts, such as the thumbnail, metadata, media, and relationships parts Others exist consistently within all files as a specific part, such as document properties Many parts, however, are unique to the application document type they represent For example, a worksheet part is only found in an Excel document, while a slide master part only appears in a PowerPoint document.
It is important to note that, with a few exceptions defined within the Open Packaging Conventions, the actual file directory structure is arbitrary The relationships of the files within the package, not the file structure, are what determine file validity You can rearrange and rename the parts of an Office XML Formats file inside its ZIP container, provided that you update the relationships properly so that the document parts continue to relate to one another as designed If the relationships are accurate, the file opens without error The initial file structure in an Office XML Formats file is the default structure that is created This default structure enables you to determine the composition of Office XML Formats files easily Provided that you keep the relationships current, you can change this default file structure For more information about this, see Walkthrough Word Open XML File Format.
Parts can be of different content types Parts used to describe Microsoft Office applications data are stored as XML These parts conform to the XML reference schema that defines the associated Office feature or object For example, in an Excel file, the data that represents a worksheet is found in an XML part that adheres to the Office schema for an Excel worksheet Additionally, if there were multiple worksheets in the workbook, there is a corresponding XML part stored in the package file for each worksheet All of the schemas that represent default Office document parts will be fu lly documented and made available from Microsoft with a royalty-free usage license Then, by using any standard XML-based technologies, you can apply your knowledge of the Office schemas to parse and create Microsoft Office system documents easily.
This folder contains a file that defines the root relationships within the package This is the first place you should go to start parsing through the package. Contains relationships b ased on the start part the virtual start part Relationships are defined with the following format. The target of the relationship is the main part defining the document the presentation part for PowerPoint, the workbook part for Excel, or the document part for Word All other relationships are based on the main document part.
Application Folder such as Word. Contains application-specific, document component files such as for Word. Contains the data text in the document, plus styles and font settings. Contains information about footers in the document, such as what page they are on and some styles information. Contains information similar to that found in the file, but regarding headers.
Is a copy of the original document. Contains information about the styles found in the document, such as font sizes, table styles, and bulleted lists. Contains any audio-type files, such as mp3, or files.
Provides a listing of the content types for the other parts that are contained in the package Content types are defined as the types of parts that can be stored in a package. Table 2 Content types in a ZIP container. Parts are the individual elements that make up an Office document in the release Relationships are the method used to specify how the collection of parts relate together to form the actual document You use XML to define relationships Relationships specify the connection between a source part and a target resource For example, you can identify the connection between a slide and an image that appears on that slide by a relationship Relationships are stored within XML parts or relationship parts in the document container If a source part has multiple relationships, all subsequent relationships are listed in t he same XML relationship part.
Relationships play an important role in Office XML Formats Every document part is referred to by at least one relationship The use of relationships makes it possible to discover how one part relates to another part without having to look within the content of parts Within parts, all references to relationships are represented using a Relationship ID, which allows all connections between parts to stay independent of content-specific schema.
Figure 2 High-level relationship diagram of an Excel workbook. The following is an example of a relationship part in an Excel workbook containing two worksheets. It is also important to note that relationships represent not only internal document references but also external resources For example, if a document contains linked pictures or objects, these are also represented using relationships This makes links in a document to external sources easy to locate, inspect, and change It offers you the opportunity to re pair broken external links, validate unfamiliar sources, or remove potentially harmful links.
The use of relationships in Office XML Formats benefits developers in a number of ways Relationships simplify the process of locating content within a document because you do not need to parse document-specific XML to find parts you also do not need to parse document-specific XML to find internal and external document resources Relationships enable you to take inventory of all the content within a document quickly For example, if you need to count the number of worksheets in an Excel workbook, you can inspect the relationships for how many sheet parts exist You can also use relationships to examine the type of content in a document This is helpful in situations where you need to identify if a document contains a particular type of content that may be harmful such as an OLE object that is suspect or helpful such as in a scenario where you want to extract all JPEG images from a document for reuse elsewhere.
Relationships also enable you to manipulate documents without having to learn application-specific syntax or content markup For example, without any knowledge of how to program PowerPoint, a developer solution could easily remove extraneous slides for a presentation by editing the document s relationships. Default Microsoft Office system documents saved in Office XML Formats are intended to be macro-free files, and therefore cannot contain code This behavior ensures that malicious code, residing in a default document, can never be executed unexpectedly While Microsoft Office system documents can still contain and use macros, the user or developer must save these documents as a macro-enabled document type This safeguard will not affect your ability to build solutions, but allows organizations to use documents with more confidence.
Macro-enabled files have the exact same file format as macro-free files, but contain additional par ts that macro-free files do not The additional parts depend on the type of automation found in the document A macro-enabled file that uses VBA contains a binary part that stores the VBA project Any Excel workbook that uses Excel 4 0 style macros XLM macros or any PowerPoint presentation that contains command buttons are also saved as macro-enabled files If a code-specific part is found in a macro-free file, whether placed there accidentally or maliciously, the Office applications will not allow the code to execute without exception.
You can now determine if any code exists within a Microsoft Office system document before opening it Previously this advance notice was not something that could be easily accomplished outside Office You can inspect the package file for the existence of any code-based parts and relationships without running Office and without running potentially risky code If a file looks suspicious, you can remove any parts capable of executing code from the file, so th at the code can cause no harm.
Another new change introduced in the Office release is that there are different extensions for files that are macro-enabled versus those that are macro-free Macro-enabled documents include a file name extension that ends with the letter m instead of an x For example, a macro-enabled Word docu ment has the extension, and thereby allows any users or software applications, before a document opens, to identify that it contains code.
Table 3 List of file name extensions for Word document types. Word File Type. The Office XML Formats introduce or improve on many types of solutions involving documents that you can build You can access the contents of an Office document in the new file formats by using any tool or technology capable of working with ZIP archives You can then manipulate the document content using any standard XML processing techniques, or, for parts that exist as embedded native formats such as images , process using any appropriate tool for that object type.
In addition, being able to open the container file of a Microsoft Office system document manually as a ZIP archive has some interesting benefits for developers For example, when building Office-based solutions, you can examine the contents and structure of a document without having to write any code T his facility can be very helpful in solution design and when building prototypes.
After you are inside a Microsoft Office system document, the structure makes it easy to navigate a document s parts and its relationships, whether it is to locate information, change content, or remove elements from a document Having the use of XML, along with the published Office reference schemas, means you can easily create additional documents, add data to existing documents, or search for specific content in a body of documents. The rest of this article explores some scenarios in which Office XML Formats enable document-based solutions These few are only part of an almost endless list of possibilities.
Content Sharing and Reuse. The emergence of XML as a popular standard for data exchange means the new Office XML Formats make document-based data more accessible among heterogeneous systems Whether users are sharing document data across a department , or two organizations are trading business data, XML as a default file format for Microsoft Office documents means Office applications can participate in business processes without the limitations previously imposed by the binary formats.
The openness of the new file formats unlocks data and introduces a broad, new level of integration beyond the desktop For example, you could refer to the published specification of the new file formats to create data-rich documents without using an Office application Server-side applications could process documents in bulk to enable large-scale solutions that mesh enterprise data within the familiar, flexible Office applications You could use standard XML protocols, such as XPath a common XML query language and Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations XSLT to retrieve data from documents or to update the contents inside a document from external data.
One such scenario could involve personalizing thousands of documents to distribute to customers Y ou could insert information programmatically into a standard document template by using a server application that uses XML that you extracted from an enterprise database or customer relationship management CRM application Creating these documents is highly efficient because there is no requirement to run Office applications yet the capability still exists for producing high-quality, rich Office documents.
The use of custom schemas in Office is another way you can use documents to share data Information that was once locked in a binary format is now easily accessible and, therefore, documents can serve as openly exchangeable data sources Custom schemas not only make insertion or extraction of data simple, they also add structure to documents and are capable of enforcing data validation.
Editing the contents of existing Office documents is another valuable example where Office XML Formats enhance a process The edit could involve updating small amounts of data, swapping entire parts, removing parts, or adding new parts altogether By using relationships and parts, the new file formats make content easier to find and manipulate The use of XML and XML schema means you can use common XML technologies, such as XPath and XSLT, to edit data within document parts in virtually endless ways.
One scenario might involve the need to edit text in the header of a Word document Of course, it is not logical to automate that task for one document But, in another scenario, what if a company merged and needed to update their new company name in the header of hundreds of different pieces of documentation A developer could write code that loops through all the documents, locates the header part in the Word file structure, and performs an XPath query to find the old text Then it could insert the new text, replace the header part, and repeat the process until every document is updated Automation could save a lot of time, enable a process that might otherwise not be attempted , and prevent potential errors that might occur during a manual process.
Another scenario might be one in which an existing Office document must be updated by changing only an entire part In an Excel workbook, you could replace an entire worksheet that contained old data or outdated calculation models with a new one by overwriting its part This kind of updating also applies to binary parts You could swap an existing image, or even an OLE object, out for a new one, as necessary You could update a Microsoft Office Visio drawing embedded as an OLE object in Office documents, for example, by overwriting that binary part You could update URLs in hyperlinks to point to new locations.
Following are some additional application-specific scenarios. Content Manipulation in Word It is a common business practice to incorporate boilerplate text inside a Word document For example, an official legal disclaimer or a disclosure of terms and conditions can be required in every public document crea ted by an organization Another typical example of boilerplate is a Company Overview section that is used in authoring sales proposals or public releases of company announcements Word offers features, such as AutoText, that are capable of accomplishing the insertion of formatted text, but this feature is limited in scale because it requires either Word automation or direct user interaction.
Word offers a very flexible alternative for you to insert content into a document The Word XML Format allows you to add document parts, called document building blocks, that are referred to by the overall document when it opens in Word This means you can build a library of document building blocks, which you can derive from document formats that Word is capable of rendering, and programmatically reuse them as needed in Word document solutions.
This broader ability to manipulate Word content offers some interesting scenarios, such as server-side document assembly Going back to the example given pre viously, you can automatically insert a legal disclaimer into a document created on a server Imagine a multinational company that requires that all of its documents contain a legal disclaimer in local languages The company could create the appropriate language-specific disclaimers as files and save them on a server An application that is constructing documents can insert the corresponding document fragment for the language required as a part inside the document container This fragment is then rendered as a seamless part of a Word document.
Content Manipulation in Excel To optimize loading and saving performance and file size, Excel stores only one copy of repetitive text within the Excel file To do so, Excel implements a shared string table in a document part specified by the target of the relationship Each unique text value found within a workbook is listed once in this part Individual worksheet cells then reference the string table to derive their values. While this process o ptimizes the Excel XML Format, it also introduces some interesting opportunities for additional content manipulation solutions Developers in a multinational organization could use the shared string table to offer a level of multilanguage support Instead of building unique workbooks for each language supported, a single workbook could use string tables that correspond to different languages Another possibility is to use string tables to search for keyword terms inside a collection of workbooks Processing a single, text-only XML document of strings is faster and simpler than having to manipulate the Excel object model over many worksheets and workbooks.
Content Manipulation in PowerPoint When a PowerPoint presentation is stored using the PowerPoint XML Format, the content remains highly accessible Because this is the first version of PowerPoint to offer an XML format, it opens up many scenarios not possible in previous versions You now have full access to slides and slide notes as text Solutions that require searching, indexing, and creating presentation content are now possible You can easily produce data-driven presentations using XML And, you can access slide masters and slide layouts through XML parts to programmatically format existing or new PowerPoint presentations.
You can take a different approach to assembling or reusing content from PowerPoint presentations by building an application that uses a catalog of slides stored independently of existing presentations Slides are represented as individual XML parts, therefore, a solution can optimize the way an organization stores and manages PowerPoint slides as data You can even write a slide viewer that allows a user to discover and select slides to build a presentation from outside PowerPoint The application can even be Web-based to allow centralized management.
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